FY05 STUDY TORS

Approved for Public Release


USAF Scientific Advisory Board
Summer Study
FY 2005

Air Force Operations in Urban Environments

Terms of Reference
 
Background
Recent conflicts illustrate that the role of the U.S. Air Force in all phases of urban operations is evolving. This evolving role necessitates increased coordination of air, space and ground operations. Future operations will also face increased challenges of real time information operations, highly flexible electronic warfare as well as the need to detect, locate and negate an evolving set of enemy weapons. Combat simulations of Combined Force strategies/tactics to predict potential outcomes, which include all aspects of air, space and ground operations, will be essential to understanding and predicting adversary actions and achieving desired effects. While current conflicts focus on finding hidden bombs, future conflicts in urban environments may involve entrenched urban forces with WMD or equally sophisticated weapons. Of special significance are Air Force actions in support of Stability And Security Operations (SASO), which have become a major challenge to coalition forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The Air Force must operate in this difficult joint environment in conjunction with ground forces to provide 24/7 persistent surveillance and reconnaissance, rapid timely detection, accurate identification, robust command, control, communication, and the capability to impair, incapacitate, or destroy fixed and mobile targets (while minimizing collateral damage) and provide accurate BDA.

Charter
The study should identify and provide recommendations on the following issues:
  • The evolving role of the Air Force air, space, and information forces in all phases of urban operations including non-lethal operations and considering a broad range of adversary weapons.
  • Methods to provide timely and persistent ISR in difficult urban conditions.
  • Lethal and non-lethal capabilities to impair, incapacitate, or destroy fixed or mobile targets while minimizing collateral damage.
  • The use of information operations and electronic attacks in urban operations.
  • Means for accurate lethal and non-lethal attacks effects assessment, including Battle Damage Prediction (BDP) and Assessment (BDA), in urban operations.
  • Command, control, and communications networking among land and air forces in support of future urban operations.
  • Modeling air, space, and ground forces to predict potential outcomes that can provide enhanced understanding of mission effectiveness by predicting the desired effects on adversaries and their courses of actions.
  • Identification of specific SASO support activities that could be accomplished by the Air Force, including predictive ISR, rapid target identification and swift engagement of insurgent forces in an urban environment.
  • This study will build on recent DSB studies, a 2004 ASB Study on Future Combat System - Urban Operations, and 1999 AF SAB Operations Other Than Conventional War Study.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in October 2005. Publish report in December 2005.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
Quick Look Study
FY 2005

Persistence at "Near Space" Altitudes
Terms of Reference

Background
Combat commands increasingly have requirements for accurate, temporally persistent, real-time intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) data. Such ISR data are critical for protection of convoys, tracking friendly forces, assessing battle damage, and connecting beyond-line-of-sight units. While the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has greatly assisted military field commanders by providing high resolution imagery over wide geographic areas, current UAV platforms have limitations in altitude that make them vulnerable to attack by surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and other adversary weapons. While satellite imagery also provides useful data, satellite operations preclude consistent, persistent focus on specific geographical locations over long periods of time. The ability to take advantage of sensing from the "near space" region in the upper atmosphere (from altitudes between 65,000 ft and 300,000 ft) will enable the Air Force to more accurately and effectively acquire ISR data and transmit the information to battlefield commanders. Such persistence requires the identification, development, and integration of carrier platforms with the relevant payloads, supporting systems and logistics.

Charter
The study will address the following issues relevant to systems operating in the "near space" region, and will provide appropriate recommendations for potential near term, mid term, and far term solutions:
  • Assess the specific shortfalls that current systems and platforms pose for sensing, acquiring, analyzing, and delivering data to combat commands
  • Assess the status of ongoing governmental studies and technology demonstrations relevant to operations at "near space" altitudes.
  • Assess the potential (benefits and disadvantages) of alternative carrier platforms for operation in "near space", including autonomous lighter-than-air vehicles, balloons, advanced aerobodies, and stealth aircraft.
  • Assess integration of alternative platforms with relevant payloads and logistics, including challenges in communications, bandwidth, and support.
  • Define near-term, mid-term, and far-term paths to accelerate "near space" persistent sensing to aid the warfighter.

Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in August 2005. Publish report in October 2005

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
Quick Look Study
FY 2005

Automatic Target Recognition
Terms of Reference

Background
The complexity of warfare and the need to shorten the kill chain against difficult targets has increased the need for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR). Applications include both imaging and non-imaging sensors, and range from embedded ATR in weapons, to launch platform target acquisition aids, to ISR exploitation tools, to automated tools which may reduce requirements for image analysts. Targets may be fully or partially obscured by competing signals such as foliage, camouflage, or deceptive elements of natural or man-made clutter including electronic countermeasures. The combat ID problem is further increased in complexity in urban environments, by the electronic environment, by target mobility, as well as by weather and the presence of bomb damage debris. Furthermore, no single sensor currently provides a robust solution for all target classes. The ability to rapidly and accurately detect, identify, and track both stationary and mobile targets will enable the Air Force to more effectively conduct operations, reduce sortie rate and minimize collateral damage.

Charter
The study should address the following issues and others it uncovers in the process, and provide appropriate recommendations:
  • Assess advances in modeling & simulation capabilities, signature libraries, and exploitation tools.
  • Assess progress and effectiveness in state-of-the-art S&T in Automatic Target Recognition algorithms under different environments.
  • Assess challenges of ATR and conditions that may limit the effectiveness of ATR.
  • Assess how far the AF can move from Assisted Target Recognition to ATR
  • Define path to accelerate ATR to aid the warfighter.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in October 2005. Publish report in December 2005.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
Ad Hoc Study
FY 2005

Domain Integration
Terms of Reference

Background
Warfighters incur significant delays when humans are manually manipulating data to provide integration or cognitively integrating multiple sources of data. The ability to horizontally integrate multi-INT information from space, air, and ground at a machine-to-machine level will enable the Air Force to rapidly and seamlessly integrate ISR with Command and Control systems to address time sensitive targets. The 2003 SAB study on Machine-to-Machine integration postulated a construct in which different domains (e.g., SIGINT, IMINT, MASINT), each with its own internal "domain architecture", became components of a common information architecture to enable information sharing without paying the cost of full pair-wise integration of the component systems. The 2004 SAB study on Network Enabled Coalition Operations (NECO) proposed a high-level information architecture for addressing CAOC needs at the operational level. The next step is the detailed definition of this architecture that enables rapid domain integration and is conformant to the NECO requirements.

Charter
The study should address the following issues and others it uncovers in the process, and provide appropriate recommendations:
  • Consider, as a basis, the findings and recommendations of the SAB 2003 Summer Study, "Technology for Machine-to-Machine Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Integration" and the requirements identified in the SAB 2004 study on Network Enabled Coalition Operations.
  • Review commercial information architecture models that address similar needs and solutions for domain integration.
  • Suggest the elements of an architecture that enables rapid and seamless domain integration.
  • Consider elements of the solution that address DOD and Air Force information assurance (IA) requirements, including the integration of non-DOD and coalition partners
  • Identify specific areas in which the Air Force needs to focus basic and applied research in information technology and networking to adapt (and adapt to) the commercial marketplace.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in October 2005. Publish report in December 2005.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
Quick Look Study
FY 2005

System-of-Systems Engineering for Air Force Capability Development
Terms of Reference

Background
Inadequate application of systems engineering principles and processes is the rationale used to explain why acquisitions are behind schedule, over budget, and deficient in required functionality. Yet, the current state of system engineering does not adequately support the development of complex, adaptive, and software-intensive system-of-systems (SoS)1 in which humans are parts of the system. While capabilities-based justification of operational need, such as supported in the CRRA process, is a step in the right direction, there is no well established SoS methodology and associated tools and techniques that can support faster engineering analysis and realization of required capabilities. We need a methodology that can match operational tempo - that can quickly field 'good enough' systems that can be further developed and supported concurrent with their operational test and use. The existing tools and processes are often focused on a very limited number of narrow, pre-defined alternatives and lack the fidelity, agility, and integration necessary to provide responsive, comprehensive analysis of alternatives. The Air Force needs to build an understanding of the critical developmental and research needs in the (system) engineering of systems-of-systems.

Charter
This quick look study will propose an engineering methodology, tailored for use by the Air Force, for software intensive SoS development with the dual goals of engineering a robust and adaptable SoS that:
(1) Provides validated operational capabilities; and
(2) Is delivered at a cycle time synchronous with current operational tempo.
 
The engineering methodology will leverage:
(1) Existing (and sometimes unused) sound systems engineering principles,
(2) Existing (and sometimes very successful) creative, non-traditional, innovation driven acquisition processes,
(3) Operator derived expectations for systems engineering outcomes as exhibited among warfighters with field experience on SoS solutions, and
(4) Evolving research results in executable, model-based architecture to support concurrent discovery of requirements, simulatable and testable SoS representations, analysis and design of SoS architecture, and rapid transformation into fieldable capabilities.

The study will be scoped to focus on an exemplar area based on Air Force needs: e.g., (1) the integration of information operations capabilities into the CAOC; or (2) use of modeling and simulation for joint operational testing.

Study Products Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC by August 2005. Publish report by December 2005.

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1 A system will be called a System of Systems (SoS) when:
- The component systems achieve well-substantiated purposes in their own right even if detached from the overall system;
- The components systems are managed in large part for their own purposes rather than the purposes of the whole;
- It exhibits behaviors (including emergent ones) not achievable by the component systems acting independently;
- Functions, behaviors and component systems may be added or removed during its use.

Approved for Public Release