FY07 STUDY TORS

Approved for Public Release


USAF Scientific Advisory Board
FY 2007

Implications of Cyber Warfare

Terms of Reference
 
Background
The United States is vitally dependent on advanced technological capabilities enabled by global connectivity. Cyber operations can potentially disrupt, delay or deny the Air Force's ability to accomplish its missions. Cyber warfare enables attacks from anywhere in the globe at lightning speed. The cost of entry for cyber warfare is very low and adversaries can rapidly establish a strong foothold in this domain.

The Air Force needs to understand its current capabilities and critical vulnerabilities against cyber warfare. This study will perform a risk assessment of likely potential cyber warfare scenarios and determine its impacts to Air Force systems and operations. A better understanding of technology trends and potential vulnerabilities will enable the Air Force to better prepare for potential cyber attacks and to correct possible shortfalls in our systems.

Charter
  • Review Air Force's current cyber warfare defensive capabilities and assess critical vulnerabilities.
  • Define potential scenarios and assess risks to Air Force systems.
  • Define technology trends and propose a way ahead for S&T development that could reduce our potential vulnerabilities or mitigate the impact of cyber attack on our systems.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS and AF/CC in July 2007. Publish report in August 2007.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
FY 2007

Operational Utility of Small Satellites
Terms of Reference

Background
National security satellites today are large and heavy, take many years to develop and field operationally, and are very expensive. The 2007 National Defense Authorization Act directed the Defense Department to establish a Joint Operationally Responsive Space Office to partially address some of these issues and to be more supportive of the tactical needs of the combat commanders. One approach that has been suggested is the use of small satellites. If small satellites could be developed and fielded quickly and at relatively low cost to provide tailored operational capabilities, they could prove very useful. The capabilities that small satellites and small satellite constellations can provide must be carefully analyzed in order to quantify their true operational value and their ability to address the need for responsive space systems.

Charter
The study will:
  • Review and assess relevant previous studies, current programs and R&D activities by government and contractor organizations.
  • Identify key capabilities of various satellite types (electro-optical, radar, SIGINT, communications, etc) required to support tactical and intelligence missions during peacetime, crisis, and war, such as S&T demonstrations, persistent remote sensing, and space control.
  • Identify current and projected gaps in technology, and assess the technical difficulties that modern small satellites may or may not have in satisfying combatant commanders' needs, including concepts of operations, command and control methods and ground systems.
  • Develop different objective configurations of small satellites and constellations that could provide the key capabilities that have been identified, and match them to necessary launch capability and capacity.
  • Assess emerging technologies and architectures that can reduce size and weight, improve performance and define near-term, mid-term, long-term roadmaps.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in July 2007. Publish report in August 2007.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
FY 2007

Theater Ballistic Missile Threat Assessment
Terms of Reference

Background
The proliferation of Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) is a growing threat to our fielded forces and coalition partners. It is of critical importance that the U.S. Air Force maintains a high level of confidence in its understanding, on a global scale, of current TBM capabilities (e.g., characteristics of warheads, guidance systems, propulsion, and command and control systems). The ability to detect, track, target, and potentially to engage and destroy TBMs is required, whether the missiles are located in garrisons or depots or are deployed in the field. An accurate assessment of the desired effects against TBMs is further required as a critical element of the time line for defeat.

Charter
The study will:
  • Identify current and projected global capabilities in TBMs including range, precision (CEP), and potential yield, and broadly assess the severity of the threats.
  • Assess specific characteristics of global TBM systems, including warheads, guidance systems, propulsion, transportation methods, and command and control
  • Identify current and projected gaps in AF capabilities with respect to the detection, tracking, targeting and engaging of TBMs, whether they are located in garrisons or depots or are being deployed in the field. Recommend promising technological solutions for detection, tracking, targeting, and engagement that could be deployed in the near-, mid- and far-term.
  • Assess the current and projected state of defense against TBMs as well as the current and projected ability to perform battle damage assessment. Recommend promising technological solutions for defense as well as battle damage assessment that could be deployed in the near-, mid-, and far-term.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in July 2007. Publish report in August 2007.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
FY 2007

Thermal Management Technology Solutions
Terms of Reference

Background
Propulsion, power, sensor, and directed energy systems are the major sources of high thermal loads in Air Force vehicles. Heat loads in many vehicle and power systems have increased to the point where heat collection, transport, harvesting and rejection can dominate and/or severly limit system performance. For example, thermal problems on tactical strike aircraft such as the F-22 and F-35, and emerging thermal issues on airborne directed energy platforms and long-range strike aircraft, are especially important to consider so as not to impose technological and operational restrictions on these systems. Heat loads in aircraft have become so large that the fuel may no longer be an adequate heat sink. In space systems, thermal management is further compounded by the need to heat as well as cool system components. Thermal management involves a wide range of conditions in the nature of the heat load, including the source and sink temperatures, the magnitude of the heat fluxes, the nature of and constraints on the heat sink, and system optimization and performance constraints. The unique thermal problems in each system have created significant challenges for the Air Force in developing system-level assessments and technology solutions for thermal management.

Charter
The study will explore potential technology improvements in thermal management systems by providing the following:
  • An overview of the thermal management problem in Air Force systems, including relevant trades associated with air and space propulsion, power, sensor, and directed energy systems, expressed in terms of system-level assessments of efficiencies, performance, weight, volume, and similar technical criteria.
  • An assessment of the accomplishments and potential future benefits of recent AFRL, industry, and other government programs relevant to improved thermal management in aerospace systems.
  • An assessment of potential technology solutions that could be used for improved thermal management in air and space propulsion, power, sensors, and directed energy systems. These could include, but would not be limited, to high heat sink fuels, advanced materials, and other heat rejection/reduction/energy extraction systems. Such solutions should be identified as being potentially implemented in the near-, mid-, and far-term.
  • Recommend roadmaps for enabling technologies in the mid-to-far-term, with an emphasis on improving the flexibility and capability of UAS in an IW environment.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in July 2007. Publish report in August 2007.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board
Summer Study
FY 2007

Use and Sustainment of Composites in Aircraft
Terms of Reference

Background
Composite materials have found increased use in the design and production of military and civilian aircraft over the past several decades. The oldest applications of composite materials in aircraft date from the 1930s, with modern high-performance composites moving into a prominent role in the 1970s with the B-1 bomber following proof-of-concept testing using the F-111, CH-47 and OV-10. Modern military aircraft contain a significant amount of composite structural materials (24% of F-22 structural materials by weight). With increasing reliance on composite materials, and with aging aircraft in the inventory containing composite components, it is critical that the Air Force develop a robust non-destructive health monitoring techniques for inspection. The life cycle implications of composites need to be understood and recommendations to the Air Force will be made to enable cost-effective viability of aircraft composites

Charter
This study will assess the state of knowledge on the aging of composite materials for military aircraft. It will build upon prior studies by other organizations and compare and contrast aging issues in composites with sustainment models used for metals. Specifically, the study will:
  • Investigate the current understanding of aging in composite aircraft materials and components including the effects of progressive damage due to thermal and mechanical fatigue and environmental exposure, the effects of accumulated discrete damage events from battle damage, impacts, lightning strikes, handling and patch repairs.
  • Evaluate the utility of available non-destructive inspection methods for structural health monitoring and other techniques under development. Define roadmap to develop robust composite material aging monitoring, inspection and repair.
  • Assess the life cycle implications of composites and provide near-term, mid-term and far-term recommendations to the Air Force to maintain cost-effective viability of aircraft composites.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in July 2007. Publish report in November 2007.

Approved for Public Release