FY11 STUDY TORS

Approved for Public Release


USAF Scientific Advisory Board

Sensor Data Exploitation


Terms of Reference
 
Background
The Air Force continues to develop and field more radar, video, other electro optical/infrared, signal and other sensors (including advanced apertures on 5th generation fighters and other aircraft), providing increasingly higher volumes of higher fidelity data. This data stresses capacities of data links, and also floods available Air Force capabilities for exploitation of the data. Moreover tasking and control of the sensors are inadequate, resulting in redundant and missing collections. The limited ability to turn sensor data into actionable knowledge limits the utility of the sensors and the platforms that host them. Advances in processing techniques, processing architectures, and processing hardware can lead to reduced demands on communications and manning while providing more actionable information.

Charter
The study will focus on Air Force-relevant technologies and systems for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) of objects and people on the ground. Within that scope, it will:
  • Identify sensor data and other information (e.g., multi-int, social media, cyber-derived) that does or will contribute to warfighter needs for intelligence; combat identification; decision-aiding; targeting; and battle damage assessment.
  • Review and assess the state-of-the-art in sensor management and exploitation technologies, along with current Air Force systems and programs addressing sensor management and exploitation.
  • Propose exploitation architectures, including those that make use of net-centricity, that current systems and programs can evolve to, and that can accommodate future sensor systems and programs.
  • Identify promising technological approaches, at various levels of maturity, that will produce improved knowledge from available data sources in contested and congested environments through the use of:
    o Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB) and other data bases to enhance tasking and management of sensors
    o Improved collection in the context of intended exploitation and application
    o Real-time or near-real time cueing of contributing sensors and human operators
    o Advanced techniques and technologies for exploitation, fusion, and processing at the sensor, with emphasis on video
    o Efficient use of communications capacity through approaches that include reduced collection redundancy, cueing, processing at the sensor, and data compression
    o Accounting for the attributes, credibility, latency, and pedigree of the data sources
  • Identify technology needs and identify promising technological approaches that should be pursued to address near-term, mid-term, and far-term challenges.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in June 2011. Publish report in December 2011.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board

Sustaining Air Force Aging Aircraft into the 21st Century

Terms of Reference

 
Background
The Air Force will operate its legacy aircraft for decades beyond their originally projected service lives, stressing structures, engines, and other aircraft systems. The Fleet Viability Board (FVB) was formed to assess the technical fitness and the associated availability and cost of continued ownership of Air Force weapon systems. While the Board projects the fitness of all fleet systems (e.g., structures, propulsion, avionics, offensive/defensive, and electro-mechanical subsystems), structures, and propulsion are analyzed at the greatest depth. Addressing structures and engines is a complex task, but other aircraft systems can also be life limiting; pose flight safety risks; and affect aircraft availability, effectiveness, and Operations and Maintenance (O&M) costs. Investments in appropriate modifications/replacements are planned for some aircraft fleets, but deferred for others. For example, the FVB has identified service life issues associated with the landing gear of the A-10, T-38, and F-15 fleets. Some of these fleets have scheduled depot maintenance for their landing gear or plans to replace existing landing gear with new hardware, but others are deferring these investments. There is a need to help the Air Force identify and prioritize investments in other aircraft systems while identifying how such investments can establish a foundation for future adaptations and performance enhancements.

Charter
The study will work closely with the FVB to:
  • Identify specific aircraft systems, besides structures and engines that contribute to safety, availability, and effectiveness for aging aircraft.
  • Using the FVB's prioritized list of aircraft, determine for all fleets the maintenance status of these aircraft systems, and rank them in terms of priority due to risk across Mission Design Series (MDS).
  • Examine commercial practices in airlines, air freight services, and other industries, and evaluate how they can be applied to meet Air Force needs.
  • Assess the time and first-order investment required to complete needed modifications of the high priority aircraft systems, and the resulting effect on operational availability of the fleets. Perform a first-order assessment of O&M cost savings and avoidance and military utility of improved capabilities that would result.
  • Recommend how the Air Force should proceed to address these modifications by MDS in priority due to mission risk, operational availability, O&M cost.
  • Identify technology needs and technology approaches that can be applied or developed to extend life or ease maintenance of these aircraft systems, while facilitating future adaptations and performances enhancements of the aircraft.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in June 2011. Publish report in December 2011.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board

Munitions for the 2025+ Environment and Force Structure

Terms of Reference

 
Background
The 2025 battlefield environment will require the Air Force to be able to engage an increasingly difficult target set to include: moving and repositionable elements of the threats' integrated air defense system; hardened and buried structures; targets in urban areas; high-value ground and air targets, radiating and non-radiating; 4th and 5th generation fighters with reduced signatures; advanced air defense systems; and long-range weapons fired against U.S. surface targets. In the future, this target set may need to be engaged by a significantly reduced force structure of 4th and 5th generation manned and remotely-piloted aircraft employing both internal and external carriage. The operating environment will extend from operations within a fully integrated air defense system with long-range surface-to-air missiles and 4th and 5th generation fighters, to operations in an urban environment where minimizing civilian casualties and collateral damage require restrictive rules of engagement. New weapons concepts and technologies are required to maintain force effectiveness against air and surface targets and these new weapons concepts and technologies should be considered in concurrence with the development of future delivery platforms.

Charter
The study will:
  • Assess the effectiveness of current and planned munitions in the 2025 environment (force structure, target sets, threat environment) against air and surface targets.
  • Identify gaps or shortfalls in capability, accounting for constraints and characteristics (carriage, payload, targeting capability, etc.) of current and new delivery platforms, survivability, likely threat environment and rules-of-engagement.
  • Recommend necessary new operational concepts, munitions development activities, and enabling Science and Technology (S&T) including:
    o Required S&T and timeline
    o Required Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) for existing munitions accompanied by a roadmap
    o Required new munitions development
  • Provide guidance for munitions S&T and munitions development to achieve lethality and forceeffectiveness in the 2025 environment.
  • Identify opportunities to shape characteristics of future munitions and future delivery platforms in order to achieve increased operational effectiveness.
Study Products
Briefing to SAF/OS & AF/CC in June 2011. Publish report in December 2011.

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USAF Scientific Advisory Board

Quicklook Study, Beginning June 2011
Aircraft Oxygen Generation

Terms of Reference
Background
Many aircraft make use of an on-board oxygen generation system to provide breathing oxygen for the aircrew. Recently, there have been a number of hypoxic-related incidents that may be related to OBOGS or its installation. An investigation of system safety issues involving OBOGS is required to ensure that the appropriate steps are being taken to enhance flight safety of these aircraft.

Charter
This study will:
  • Continue the evaluation of the F-22 oxygen (O2) system to include developing the means to gather dynamic in-flight information to identify the root cause of reported hypoxia incidents
    o Recommend refined peacetime altitude restrictions when greater data fidelity is available on OBOGS overall fleet wide performance
    o Review current aircraft O2 design and offer any changes, if required, for the F-22 configuration of OBOGS, BRAG valve, back-up O2 supplies, automatic system activation, PVI design and overall system inspection/self test cycle
  • Evaluate OBOGS, and life support systems in general, to determine commonalities and acquisition philosophy across MDS and identify design limitations and/or key assumptions
    o Review practice of "fly to warn" systems that may only allow the absolute minimum level of O2 required in rapid decompression situations
    o Make recommendations on the use of "automatic activation" backup O2 with respect to normal aircraft operating altitude and agreed-upon aviator response time
  • Evaluate further investigation into contaminants that potentially impact OBOGS operation and follow-on performance effects on aircrew
    o Ensure testing includes dynamic ECS-induced temperature heat/cooling cycle that may affect the chemical composition of various aircraft inlet-ingested contaminants
    o Explore the development and fielding of filters or catalysts to negate the impact of the most likely contaminants found in OBOGS product gas when operating in common aviation environments (combat and peacetime)
  • Direct and evaluate, if able, human response to high altitude, rapid cabin altitude changes and rapid decompression environment with less then 90% supplied O2
    o If warranted, based on F-22 oxygen sensor data, direct evaluation of low O2 (less than 21%) at altitude for sustained and transient exposure
    o Fully explore the impact on OBOGS standard (max) 93% O2 content on decompression sickness/pre-breathing requirements
  • Revalidate and make recommendations to clarify guidance for Air Standards with specific guidance on effect of systems deigned to minimum acceptable standards
  • Review and validate the implementation of performance based contract acquisition programs and risk analysis protocols
  • Examine those incidents that are occurring in flight regimes which are normally considered unlikely for a hypoxic event (e.g., 8,000' cabin altitude pressures)
  • Review and validate all associated aircrew flight equipment affiliated with OBOGS-equipped aircraft
  • Priority should be given to the F-22 aircraft but expanding the scope to include the F-16, A-10, F-15E, B-1, B-2, CV-22, T-6, F-35, F-18 and other aircraft is authorized if appropriate
Study Products
Written, public-releasable report presented to the SAF/OS upon completion. A preliminary report provided to the SAF/OS by June 30, 2011 with follow-on reports provided every 60 days until completion. Planned completion in November 2011.

Approved for Public Release